For SNMP Queries, you won't need to create a data retrieval script. Cacti will use SNMP to retrieve information. But cacti will need additional information on how the indexed data is structured. Think about a table (a MIB table in this case); you'll have to tell cacti about the table structure. This is done by defining an XML file. Basically, you have to define the index to tell cacti about the number of rows and about their unique index. This index is later used to access each rows data. Furthermore, you may define columns, that serve as descriptive fields to be shown in the selection table. The XML file knows them as
At last, you will have to define those fields, that will be queried for the readings, e.g. ifInOctets, ifOutOctets, ifInErrors, … The XML file knows them as
Lets have an example: standard Interface MIB with the corresponding part of the <path_cacti>/resources/snmp_queries/interfaces.xml file are displayed using the following table:
and see the corresponding table structure when defining New Graphs for that device (my laptop):
Now you can map
- Index: IF-MIB::ifIndex
- Status: IF-MIB::ifOperStatus
- Description: IF-MIB::ifDescr
- Type: IF-MIB::ifType
- Speed: IF-MIB::ifSpeed
All those are <direction>input</direction> Parameters. They serve as descriptive information to each row to help you identify the proper interface to use. Those parameters of <direction>output</direction> can be compared to output parameters of a script (see ping.pl script above). These are the readings from the device. By selecting the appropriate row (the one greyed out had been selected by me), you tell cacti to retrieve data from the interface defined by this index. But how does cacti know, what output parameters it shall retrieve? See the Select a Graph type DropDown. It specifies a Graph Template defined for this Data Query. The Graph Template in turn references a Data Template which incorporates the needed output parameters as Data Sources. This works quite the same way as defined for a Data Input Method.
To sum up: the SNMP XML file is somehow a replacement for the Data Input Method described above to be used on indexed values. It tells cacti, what data it should retrieve (direction: output). To help you identifying the relevant indexes, the XML defines descriptive parameters (direction: input) to be displayed in the selection table.
A walkthrough for this is given now. It is based on the already supplied interfaces.xml XML file.
Go to Data Queries and click Add to see:
Here, we are using the already existing interface.xml file. Select Get SNMP Data (Indexed) as Data Input Method. Create to see:
See, that cacti found the XML file. Don't bother with the Associated Graph Templates at the moment. The success message does not include checking of the XML file's content. Not lets proceed to the next definitions.
This is the exact copy of the definitions made above. So I do not repeat everything here. Data Input Method must be selected as Get SNMP Data (Indexed). As this data source is a COUNTER type, select this as the Data Source Type. But after saving the new Data Source definition, you may want to define a second Data Source to the same Data Template. To do so, select New from the Data Source Item heading to see:
The name of the Data Source (ifOutOctets) is not replaced in the Tab until you save your work. By default, Maximum Value is set to 100. This is way too low for an interface. All readings above this value will be stored as NaN by rrdtool. To avoid this, set to 0 (no clipping) or to a reasonable value (e.g. interface speed). Don't forget to specify COUNTER! You will have noticed, that the name of the data source does not match the Name in the interface.xml. Don't worry, the solution to this is given later on. Before leaving, pay attention to the bottom of the page:
This is specific to indexed SNMP Queries. You will have to check the last three items to make indexing work. All other items should be left alone, there values will be taken from the appropriate device definitions. Now Save and you're done with this step.
Now you want to tell cacti, how to present the data retrieved from SNMP Query. Again, this is done by merely copying the procedure described above. When selecting the Data Source, pay attention to select from the just defined data sources. The next step is new and applies only to Data Queries:
Now it's time to re-visit our Data Query. Remember the Associated Graph Template we've left alone in the very first step? Now it will get a meaning. Go to Data Queries and select our new one. Then Add a new Associated Graph Template:
Give it a Name and select the generated Graph Template. Create.
Select the correct Data Source, pay attention to checking the checkboxes of each row. Apply a name to the Data Template and a title to the Graph Template. Use cacti variables as defined in Variables. You may use all XML fields defined as <direction>input</direction>; in this example the fields <ifName> and <ifDescr> of the interface.xml were used. Add those Suggested Values. They will be used to distinguish Data Sources and Graphs for the same device; without this they all would carry the same name. At last: Save:
Now go to your Device to add the Associated Data Query:
Click Add and then Create Graphs for this Host to see:
Now select the wanted interface and Create to generate the Traffic Graph. As long as there's only one Associated Graph Template for that Data Query, here will be now Select a Graph Type DropDown.